Unit IV: Global Interactions and the First Global Age (1450 - 1770)


Unit IV: Global Interactions and the First Global Age (1450 - 1770)

Unit IV Ninth Grade

 Global Interactions and the First Global Age (1450 - 1770)

Essential Questions
• How is the Renaissance a turning point in European history?
• What were the economic, political and social changes that occurred?
• How did attempts to reform the church lead to conflict?
• What impact did China’s self-concept of the “Middle Kingdom” have on its political, economic and cultural relationships with other societies in Eastern, Southeastern Asia and encounters further west?
• What social and economic forces led to an imbalanced encounter between Europe and the Americas? 
• Change over time:  all China (Song to Ming), all Middle East, all Europe
• To what extent were the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans and the voyages of Columbus major turning points in global history? 
• What impact did the Encounter have on the Americas, Africa, and Eurasia? 
• What role did science and technology play in the changes that took place in Europe from 1450 to 1770? 
• How did the Scientific Revolution lead to the Enlightenment?
• How did new scientific and religious ideas lead to new political thought?
• How did the transition to a secular world view lead to rejection of traditional authorities and open the door to new philosophies? 

Objectives Students will be able to: 
1.Trace the rise and evolution of capitalism as an economic system.

2. Discuss the shift in emphasis to more secular concerns that occurred during the Renaissance.

3. Analyze the causes and effects of the Protestant Reformation and Counter Reformation.

4. Explain the impact of global exploration on the Americas, Europe, Asia, and Africa. 

5. Compare and contrast the empires of Mesoamerica with the empires of Afro-Eurasia.

6. Identify factors which contributed to the rise and fall of the Ottoman Empire.

7. Describe the role science and technology played in the changes that took place in Europe from 1450 to 1770.

8. Analyze the ways in which absolute monarchs sought to centralize power.

9. Compare and contrast absolutism in Europe with absolutism in Asia and Africa.

10.Explain the impact of the Enlightenment writers on nationalism and democracy

Content A.Renaissance and humanism
1.  Human and physical geography

2.  Shift in worldview – otherworldly to secular

3.  Greco-Roman revival (interest in humanism)

4.  Art and architecture (e.g., da Vinci and Michelangelo)

5.  Literature (e.g., Dante, Cervantes, Shakespeare)

6.  Political science (e.g., Machiavelli)

B.  Reformation and Counter Reformation
1. Human and physical geography

2. Martin Luther’s Ninety-Five Theses:  the challenge to the power and authority of the Roman Catholic Church

3. Anti-Semitic laws and policies

4.  Henry VIII and the English Reformation

5.  Calvin and other reformers

6.  Counter Reformation (Ignatius Loyola, Council of Trent)

7.  Roles of men and women within the Christian churches

8.  Religious wars in Europe:  causes and impacts

C.  The rise and impact of European nation-states/decline of feudalism

     Case studies:  England – Elizabeth I; France – Joan of Arc
1.    Forces moving toward centralization

2.    Role of nationalism

D.    The Ming Dynasty 
1.  Human and physical geography

2.  Restoration of Chinese rule, Chinese world vision

3.  The impact of China on East Asia and Southeast Asia

4.  China’s relationship with the West

5.  Contributions

6.  Expansion of trade (Zheng He)

E.  The impact of the Ottoman Empire on the Middle East and Europe
     1.  Human and physical geography

     2.  Contributions

     3.  Suleiman I (the Magnificent, the Lawgiver)

     4.  Disruption of established trade routes and European search for new ones

     5.  Limits of Ottoman Europe

F.  The rise of Mesoamerican empires:  Mayan, Aztec, Incan civilizations
     1.  Human and physical geography

     2.  Contributions (mathematics, astronomy, science, arts, architecture, and technology)

     3.  Role of maize

     4.  Religion

     5.  Organizational structure

     6.  Trade

G.  Spain and Portugal on the eve of the encounter

     1.  Human and physical geography

     2.  Reconquista under Ferdinand and Isabella

     3.  Expulsion of Moors and Jews

     4.  Expansion of the Portuguese spice trade to Southeast Asia and its impact on Asia and Europe

H.  Age of Exploration:  the encounter between Europeans and the peoples of Africa, the Americas, and Asia

     1. New scientific and technological innovations (Gutenberg’s moveable type printing press, cartography, naval engineering, and navigational and nautical devices)

     2. Human and physical geography

     3. Columbus

     4. Magellan circumnavigates the globe

     5. Case study:  The Columbian exchange, transfer of food and disease

     6. European competition for colonies in the Americas, Africa, East Asia, and Southeast Asia – The “old imperialism”

     7. Global demographic shifts
Case study:  The triangular trade and slavery

     8. The extent of European expansionism

     9. European mercantilism

    10. Spanish colonialism and the introduction of the encomienda system to Latin America

     11. Dutch colonization in East Asia (Japan and Indonesia)

I.  The Scientific Revolution

     1. The development of scientific methods

     2. The work of Copernicus, Galileo, Newton, and Descartes

J. The Rise of Absolute Monarchs
     1. Human and physical geography

     2. Hobbes, The Leviathan

     3. Boussuet

     4. Case studies:  Akbar the Great, Suleiman the Magnificent, Philip II, Louis XIV, Ivan the Terrible, and Peter the Great

K.  The response to absolutism:  The rise of parliamentary democracy in England
     1. Background – Magna Carta

     2. Divine Right of Monarchy – Stuart rule

     3. Puritan Revolution – Oliver Cromwell

     4. Glorious Revolution – John Locke and the English Bill of Rights

L.  The Enlightenment
     1. The writings of Locke, Voltaire, Rousseau, and Montesquieu

     2. The impact of the Enlightenment on nationalism and democracy

     3. The enlightened despots – Maria Theresa and Catherine the Great

Vocabulary Renaissance and Reformation: humanism, perspective, secular, Machiavellian, reforms, indulgences, religious wars, Protestant, predestination, inquisition, codex, anti-Semitism, centralization, nation-states.

Ming Dynasty:  barbarians, ethnocentrism, isolation, exploration, Zheng He, junk (ships)

Ottoman Empire:  Suleiman I, janissaries, Istanbul.

Mesoamerican and South American Empires:  slash and burn, floating gardens, chinampas, terrace farming, pyramids, glyphs, calendar, Yucatan peninsula, Tenochtitlan, Toltecs, Olmecs, tribute, sacrifice, polytheism, quipu, chasquis. 

European Exploration and Colonization:  reconquista, expulsion, anti-Semitism, spice trade, caravel, astrolabe, sextant, compass, Henry the Navigator, Encounter, Columbian Exchange, moveable type press, circumnavigation, triangular trade, trans-Atlantic trade, mercantilism, encomienda, peninsulares, viceroyalty, creole, gold, god and glory. 

England:  absolutism, centralization, Leviathan, czar, monarchy, parliamentary democracy, limited monarchy, power of the purse, Parliament, Bill of Rights

Age of Reason:  geocentric theory, heliocentric theory, scientific method, scientific revolution, enlightenment, natural rights, despot, consent of the governed, social contract, tolerance, separation of powers, laissez faire, capitalism, free market, profit motive, supply and demand, nationalism

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